A large proportion of the ‘Belt’ regions in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), such as North-western China, Western Asia, are considered drylands and are subject to different levels of desertification. The BRI has improved the international cooperation and economic development within these regions. However, there is a risk that desertification will increase in the same areas if the BRI solely focuses on rapid economic development. This chapter provides a systematic review of the desertification status and conservation measures in the BRI countries that are important for developing a spatially targeted and sustainable land management strategy under the BRI across these regions. Solutions are proposed to address and mitigate desertification processes based on an analysis of the desertification issues and existing solutions of the BRI countries.