Wearable Mobile-Based Emotional Response-Monitoring System for Drivers

Boon Giin Lee, Teak Wei Chong, Boon Leng Lee, Hee Joon Park, Yoon Nyun Kim, Beomjoon Kim

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Negative emotional responses are a growing problem among drivers, particularly in countries with heavy traffic, and may lead to serious accidents on the road. Measuring stress- and fatigue-induced emotional responses by means of a wireless, wearable system would be useful for potentially averting roadway tragedies. The focus of this study was to develop and verify an emotional response-monitoring paradigm for drivers, derived from electromyography signals of the upper trapezius muscle, photoplethysmography signals of the earlobe, as well as inertial motion sensing of the head movement. The relevant sensors were connected to a microcontroller unit equipped with a Bluetooth-enabled low-energy module, which allows the transmission of those sensor readings to a mobile device in real time. A mobile device application was then used to extract the data from the sensors and to determine the driver's current emotion status, via a trained support vector machine (SVM). The emotional response paradigm, tested in ten subjects, consisted of 10 min baseline, 5 min prestimulus, and 5 min poststimulus measurements. Emotional responses were categorized into three classes: relaxed, stressed, and fatigued. The analysis integrated a total of 36 features to train the SVM model, and the final stimulus results revealed a high accuracy rate (99.52%). The proposed wearable system could be applied to an intelligent driver's safety alert system, to use those emotional responses to prevent accidents affecting themselves and/or other innocent victims.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7852466
Pages (from-to)636-649
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Healthcare
  • mobile application
  • negative emotion
  • roadway accident
  • stress
  • wearable system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Artificial Intelligence


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