Vulnerability of the UK’s BAME communities during COVID-19: The review of public health and socio-economic inequalities

Ali Cheshmehzangi

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


This study provides a detailed analysis of the main reasons why BAME communities are impacted more by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study focuses on matters of public health inequalities, socioeconomic inequalities, and disproportionate poverty in the UK. In doing so, the study analyzes the up-to-date conditions of COVID-19 in the UK against the available governmental data on BAME communities, based on three key areas of occupational risks, household conditions, and poverty rates. Governmental data from 2018, 2019, and 2020 are used to evaluate these areas. The results of the study showed disproportionate impacts of the COVID-19 on BAME and White ethnics in the UK. The impacts also highlighted inequalities such as twice higher poverty in BAME communities than the White population, as well as more cases of overcrowded households, intergenerational living, higher-risk jobs, and long-lasting issues that require further attention. There were also significant socio-economic inequalities that were found in BAME communities with a higher rate of COVID-19 cases. The study provides more evidence that supports existing literature on BAME communities affected by the COVID-19. The reasons for their higher vulnerability are addressed through accurate and up-to-date evidence. Further studies should highlight the role of socio-economic inequalities discussed in this study to help the improvement of public health and relevant institutions that could diminish our inequalities beyond the timeline of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-188
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
Issue number2
Early online date22 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • BAME communities
  • COVID-19
  • ethnicity
  • infection
  • poverty
  • socio-economic
  • vulnerable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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