Ultra-robust stretchable electrode for e-skin: In situ assembly using a nanofiber scaffold and liquid metal to mimic water-to-net interaction

Jinwei Cao, Fei Liang, Huayang Li, Xin Li, Youjun Fan, Chao Hu, Jing Yu, Jin Xu, Yiming Yin, Fali Li, Dan Xu, Hanfang Feng, Huali Yang, Yiwei Liu, Xiaodong Chen, Guang Zhu, Run Wei Li

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


The development of stretchable electronics could enhance novel interface structures to solve the stretchability–conductivity dilemma, which remains a major challenge. Herein, we report a nano-liquid metal (LM)-based highly robust stretchable electrode (NHSE) with a self-adaptable interface that mimics water-to-net interaction. Based on the in situ assembly of electrospun elastic nanofiber scaffolds and electrosprayed LM nanoparticles, the NHSE exhibits an extremely low sheet resistance of 52 mΩ sq−1. It is not only insensitive to a large degree of mechanical stretching (i.e., 350% electrical resistance change upon 570% elongation) but also immune to cyclic deformation (i.e., 5% electrical resistance increases after 330 000 stretching cycles with 100% elongation). These key properties are far superior to those of the state-of-the-art reports. Its robustness and stability are verified under diverse circumstances, including long-term exposure to air (420 days), cyclic submersion (30 000 times), and resilience against mechanical damages. The combination of conductivity, stretchability, and durability makes the NHSE a promising conductor/electrode solution for flexible/stretchable electronics for applications such as wearable on-body physiological signal detection, human–machine interaction, and heating e-skin. (Figure presented.).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12302
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2022


  • crack confinement
  • functional e-skin
  • in situ assembly
  • self-adaptable interface
  • ultra-robust stretchable electrode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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