Types of choking in vertical pneumatic systems

H. T. Bi, J. R. Grace, J. X. Zhu

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

127 Citations (Scopus)


Choking is examined in terms of its definitions. Three choking initiation mechanisms are identified: type A (accumulative) choking occurs when solids start to accumulate at the bottom of the conveyor as the saturation gas carrying capacity is reached; type B (blower-/standpipe-induced) choking results from instabilities due to gas blower-conveyor or solids feeder-conveyor interactions where there is insufficient pressure or too limited solids feed capacity to provide the needed solids flow; and type C (classical) choking corresponds to a transition to severe slugging. Approaches for predicting the onset of each of these type of choking are recommended. Implications for regime transitions in fast fluidization are also identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1077-1092
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • choking
  • dense-phase pneumatic transport
  • dilute-phase pneumatic transport
  • fast fluidization
  • instability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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