There are a variety of reasons underlying the remarkable development of science and technology (S&T), and innovation in post-1978 China. This book seeks to achieve an understanding of such development from an institutional or a political economy perspective. Departing from the literature of S&T and innovation studies that treats innovation as a market or enterprise's behavior in Schumpeter's sense, Sun and Cao argue that it involves politics, institutions, and the role of the state. In particular, they examine how the Chinese state has played its visible role in making innovation policies, allocating funding for R&D programs, making efforts to attract talent, and organizing critical S&T programs. This book appeals to scholars in S&T and innovation policy, political economy, innovation governance, and China studies as well as policymakers and business executives.