The influence of mineral addition on the Optimised Advanced Ash Fusion Test (OAAFT) and its thermochemical modelling and prediction

Patrick Daley, Markus Reinmöller, Orla Williams, Cheng Heng Pang, Edward Lester

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Specific minerals in ash are triggers for ash fusion during combustion. This study analyses, for the first time, the link between individual minerals and the ash fusion of pseudo ash pellets using the Optimised Advanced Ash Fusion Test (OAAFT) and FactSage modelling. The study analysed 20 pseudo ash pellets whose composition spanned a wide range of fuels used in the power generation industry. Varying quantities of the 4 main minerals were used to create the pseudo pellets; CaO (0–40%), Fe2O3 (0–40%), MgO (0–25%), and Silica-Alumina ratio (0.5:1–4:1). The OAAFT produced characteristic ash fusion curves for the pseudo pellets and individual minerals. The study also gained insight into the link between mineral transformations and ash fusion by comparing these profiles to the slag formation predictions in the FactSage modelling. Excellent alignment was obtained between the OAAFT curves and FactSage data. The OAFFT curves can be described as individual fingerprints of the ash fusion behaviour of the sample, which can be broken down into individual components. This data cannot be obtained from the conventional ash fusion test. By combining OAAFT and FactSage data, power generators can replicate slagging and fouling issues and identify the major components which are causing issues. The addition of mineral additives can be tested to analyse how slagging and fouling issues can be tackled for specific fuels. This will be of increasing importance as fuel blending and new complex fuels such as refuse derived fuels enter the market.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-132
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Energy Institute
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Advanced ash fusion test
  • Ash
  • FactSage
  • Minerals
  • Thermochemical modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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