Seat belt detection using gated Bi-LSTM with part-to-whole attention on diagonally sampled patches

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


One of the high-risk behaviors leading to severe traffic injuries is not wearing a seat belt. It is therefore very important to be able to automatically detect seat belts from surveillance images, encourage drivers to wear seat belts, and enhance passenger safety. In this paper, a novel deep neural network, Gated Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory network with part-to-whole attention (GBL-PA), is proposed for seat belt detection from surveillance images. The innovation of our model lies in its unique diagonal sampling strategy, which meticulously captures the seat belt’s fine details, typically oriented from top right to bottom left across the torso of vehicle occupants. Our framework’s novelty is further encapsulated by the part-to-whole attention mechanism, which intelligently harmonizes the detailed local information from seat belt-specific patches with the broader contextual insights from the regional proposals. The pioneering design of a Gated Bi-directional LSTM network facilitates the dynamic integration of interactions across patches to deliver an optimized final prediction. The superiority of GBL-PA is established through rigorous comparison with the state-of-the-art methods on a new, large benchmark dataset comprising 14,936 images from traffic surveillance footage. Our framework demonstrates a notable improvement, achieving a mean Average Precision (mAP) of 72.3%, which surpasses the second best, YOLOX, by 0.9% mAP. This significant and consistent outperformance across various metrics underscores the transformative potential of GBL-PA in the realm of traffic safety enforcement. The source code of our framework is available at ANONYMISED.
Original languageEnglish
Article number123784
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Issue numberPart A
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2024


  • Seat belt detection
  • Part-to-whole attention
  • Bi-directional LSTM
  • Gated fusion


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