Proximate composition, lipid and elemental profiling of eight varieties of avocado (Persea americana)

Chaimae Nasri, Yasmina Halabi, Ahmed Hajib, Hasnae Choukri, Hicham Harhar, Learn Han Lee, Vasudevan Mani, Long Chiau Ming, Khang Wen Goh, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Mohamed Tabyaoui

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


Eight Moroccan avocado varieties were analyzed for their nutritional composition and physicochemical properties. The nutritional contents of the sample were determined through the evaluation of the moisture, oil, ash, protein, and carbohydrate contents, and energy value calculation. Additionally, macroelements (Ca, Mg, and Na) and microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) were determined in the mineral profile. Oils were examined also for their fatty acid, phytosterol, and tocopherol profiles. As a result of the study, the avocado presents significant differences between the eight studied varieties (p < 0.05), with regard to moisture content (57.88 g/100 g to 84.71 g/100 g), oil content (8.41 g/100 g to 57.88 g/100 g), ash (0.57 g/100 g to 1.37 g/100 g), protein content (5.7 g/100 g to 8.61 g/100 g), carbohydrate content (5.63 g/100 g to 14.61 g/100 g), and energy value (99.9 kcal/100 g to 316.8 kcal/100 g). Sodium (5783.01 mg/kg to 12,056.19 mg/kg) was the predominant macro-element in all varieties, followed by calcium (295.95 mg/kg to 531.67 mg/kg), and magnesium (246.29 mg/kg to 339.84 mg/kg). Copper (85.92 mg/kg to 112. 31 mg/kg) was the main microelement in all varieties, followed by iron (8.5 mg/kg to 20.32 mg/kg), and manganese (7.3 mg/kg to 18.45 mg/kg), while zinc (1.72 mg/kg to 5.66 mg/kg) was detected in small amounts. In addition, significant difference was observed in lipid profiles, according to the eight studied varieties (p < 0.05). Avocado oils were mainly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids (76.89 g/100 g to 84.7 g/100 g), with oleic acid (50.38 g/100 g to 71.49 g/100 g) standing out as particularly characteristic, while β-sitosterol (l2365.58 mg/kg to 4559.27 mg/kg), and α-tocopherol (30.08 mg/kg to 182.94 mg/kg) were among its major phytosterols and tocopherols. All avocado varieties represented in this study can be consumed as a fruit as an excellent source of energy, minerals, fatty acids, phytosterols, and tocopherols. The regular consumption of this fruit provides the body with several essential nutrients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22767
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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