The objective of this work was to study the risk of pneumonia and pneumonia mortality among patients receiving nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), non-N-BP anti-osteoporosis medications, and no anti-osteoporosis medications after hip fracture. We studied a historical cohort using a population-wide database. Patients with first hip fracture during 2005–2015 were identified and matched by time-dependent propensity score. The cohort was followed until December 31, 2016, to capture any pneumonia and pneumonia mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards regression. Absolute risk difference (ARD) and number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated. We identified 54,047 patients with hip fracture. Of these, 4041 patients who received N-BPs and 11,802 without anti-osteoporosis medication were propensity score–matched. N-BPs were associated with a significantly lower risk of pneumonia compared with no treatment (6.9 versus 9.0 per 100 person-years; HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.83), resulting in an ARD of 0.02 and NNT of 46. A similar association was observed with pneumonia mortality (HR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.75). When N-BPs were compared with non-N-BP anti-osteoporosis medications, the association remained significant. N-BPs were associated with lower risks of pneumonia and pneumonia mortality. Randomized controlled trials are now required to determine whether N-BPs, non–vaccine-based medications, can reduce pneumonia incidence in high risk groups.
- GENERAL POPULATION STUDIES
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine