New approach to investigate Common Variable Immunodeficiency patients using spectrochemical analysis of blood

Emma L. Callery, Camilo L.M. Morais, Maria Paraskevaidi, Vladimir Brusic, Pavaladurai Vijayadurai, Ariharan Anantharachagan, Francis L. Martin, Anthony W. Rowbottom

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and various complications. The clinical heterogeneity of CVID has hindered identification of an underlying immune defect; diagnosis relies on clinical judgement, alongside evidence-based criteria. The lack of pathognomonic clinical or laboratory features leads to average diagnostic delays of 5 years or more from the onset. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have recently gained increasing clinical importance, being rapid-, non-invasive and inexpensive methods to obtain information on the content of biological samples. This has led us to apply FTIR spectroscopy to the investigation of blood samples from a cohort of CVID patients; revealing spectral features capable of stratifying CVID patients from healthy controls with sensitivities and specificities of 97% and 93%, respectively for serum, and 94% and 95%, respectively for plasma. Furthermore we identified several discriminating spectral biomarkers; wavenumbers in regions indicative of nucleic acids (984 cm −1 , 1053 cm −1 , 1084 cm −1 , 1115 cm −1 , 1528 cm −1 , 1639 cm −1 ), and a collagen-associated biomarker (1528 cm −1 ), which may represent future candidate biomarkers and provide new knowledge on the aetiology of CVID. This proof-of-concept study provides a basis for developing a novel diagnostic tool for CVID.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7239
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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