Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities

Ibrahim Khan, Khalid Saeed, Idrees Khan

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review

4012 Citations (Scopus)


This review is provided a detailed overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of nanoparticles (NPs) exist in different forms. NPs are tiny materials having size ranges from 1 to 100 nm. They can be classified into different classes based on their properties, shapes or sizes. The different groups include fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs. NPs possess unique physical and chemical properties due to their high surface area and nanoscale size. Their optical properties are reported to be dependent on the size, which imparts different colors due to absorption in the visible region. Their reactivity, toughness and other properties are also dependent on their unique size, shape and structure. Due to these characteristics, they are suitable candidates for various commercial and domestic applications, which include catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications. Heavy metal NPs of lead, mercury and tin are reported to be so rigid and stable that their degradation is not easily achievable, which can lead to many environmental toxicities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)908-931
Number of pages24
JournalArabian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Fullerenes
  • Nanoparticles
  • Optical
  • Plasmonic
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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