This study investigates the potential of producing graphene oxide (GO) from biomass via green (comparatively) processing and the impact of graphitization temperature on GO quality. Our findings show that it is possible to convert biomass into highly pyrolytic biochar, followed by shear exfoliation to produce few-layer GO. However, pyrolysis temperature is key in ensuring that the biochar is suited for effective exfoliation. Low temperatures (<1000 °C) would preserve undesirable heterogenous, complex cellular structure of biomass whilst excessive temperatures (≥1300 °C) result in uncontrolled melting, coalescence and loss of functional groups. Results show 1200 °C to be the optimum graphitization temperature for miscanthus, where the resultant biochar is highly aromatic with sufficient functional groups to weaken van der Waals forces, thus facilitating exfoliation to form 6-layer GO with specific surface area of 545.3 m2g−1. This study demonstrates the potential of producing high quality, fit-for-purpose graphene materials from renewable sources.
- Graphene oxide
- Shear exfoliation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal