This paper aims to investigate the transformation of the manufacturing system with the emerging technologies, namely the 3D printing technology in this research. The research results highlighted an evolution of manufacturing systems, from firm-based, to network-based, and to ecosystem-based. This research verified three elements - functional role, platform, and solution - for the configuration of a manufacturing system in the context of emerging technologies. Two dimensions - platform openness and solution diversity - were identified to classify an ecosystem-based manufacturing system, which then can be categorized into government-driven, market-driven, and individual-driven configurations. Four capabilities of the ecosystem-based manufacturing system in the context of emerging technologies have been identified as collaborative manufacturing flexibility, rapid thriftiness ability, self-customization, and co-evolved design capability.