Investigation of thermal comfort and preferred temperatures for healthcare staff in hospitals in Ningbo, China

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Appropriate thermal comfort is crucial for healthcare staff to ensure a conducive working environment. Literature review indicates that staff have a much different thermal comfort requirement from patients and visitors, which has not received sufficient attention in current studies. This empirical study was conducted from December 2021 to November 2022 in dental treatment departments of four hospitals in Ningbo, China. A total of 333 questionnaires were collected and analysed to investigate the current thermal environment, the thermal sensation of healthcare staff, and the seasonal variation of the metabolic rate and clothing insulation. The adaptive coefficient of the adaptive predicted mean vote (aPMV) model for healthcare staff was −0.34 in cooler environments and 0.128 in warmer environments. The calculated thermoneutral temperatures, derived from PMV regression, TSV regression, and the Griffiths method, stood at 21.81 °C, 20.99 °C, and 22.54 °C, respectively. Correspondingly, the associated comfort temperature ranges in the case study healthcare buildings were 19.10–24.51 °C, 17.66–24.33 °C, and 22.24–22.84 °C. These parameters play a pivotal role in establishing precise thermal benchmarks and ensure optimal thermal experiences for healthcare staff investigated. The novelty of the research lies in thoroughly investigating the thermal comfort of healthcare staff, with the development of the adaptive models tailored to the climatic conditions of the Ningbo region and the specific characteristics of healthcare staff. Additionally, the research rigorously compares and validates these findings with established standards and previous studies in the field. The research indicated that the resulting comfort temperatures, while lower than established adaptive regulations, closely align with the recommended temperatures in the healthcare building design specifications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108029
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Adaptive thermal comfort
  • Comfortable temperature
  • Healthcare staff

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Investigation of thermal comfort and preferred temperatures for healthcare staff in hospitals in Ningbo, China'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this