Group C+ particles: Extraordinary dense phase expansion during fluidization through nano-modulation

Yandaizi Zhou, Jesse Zhu

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Group C particles, although deemed to be difficult to fluidize because of their cohesive nature, fluidize well with high bed expansion and therefore hold more gas in the bed after nano-modulation. Using the bed collapse test, the dense phase properties of those formed Group C+ and Group A particles were characterized. Group C+ particles exhibited much higher dense phase expansion and larger dense phase voidage than Group A particles, indicating more gas holdup in the dense phase available for intimate gas-solid contact. Therefore, Group C+ particles, with the extraordinary dense phase expansion and the large specific surface area, are significantly better for industrial processes, especially in gas-phase catalytic reactions. Maximum dense phase expansion (Ed,max) was defined as a factor for quantifying the expansion ability of the dense phase for different particles. Group C+ particles with greater Ed,max values signifies higher dense phase expansions, beneficial for gas-solid contact.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115420
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Bed collapse test
  • Bubble holdup
  • Dense phase expansion
  • Group C particle fluidization
  • Nanoparticle modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (all)
  • Chemical Engineering (all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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