This study investigates how market pressures (i.e., customer pressure and competitor pressure) motivate firms to develop a proactive environmental strategy and how such effects are moderated by a flexibility-control orientation, which is one common representation of organizational culture. The results of a survey including 250 Chinese manufacturing firms suggest that customer and competitor pressures have direct effects on environmental strategy proactivity. In addition, flexibility and control orientations play different roles in the relationships between these two market pressures and firms’ environmental strategy proactivity. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided for environmental sustainability.
- Competitor pressure
- Corporate environmental proactivity
- Customer pressure
- Flexibility-control orientation
ASJC Scopus subject areas