Effectiveness, safety, initial optimal dose, and optimal maintenance dose range of basal insulin regimens for type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with meta-analysis

Yingying Luo, Jun Xia, Zhan Zhao, Yaping Chang, Yong Mong Bee, Khue Thy Nguyen, Soo Lim, Daisuke Yabe, Margaret McGill, Alice Pik Shan Kong, Siew Pheng Chan, Marisa Deodat, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Ketut Suastika, Chenchen Xu, Liming Chen, Wei Chen, Xiaoying Li, Weigang Zhao, Xiaomei YaoLinong Ji

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: To investigate the effectiveness, safety, optimal starting dose, optimal maintenance dose range, and target fasting plasma glucose of five basal insulins in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 to February 2022. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach was adopted. The registration ID is CRD42022319078 in PROSPERO. Results: Among 11 163 citations retrieved, 35 publications met the planned criteria. From meta-analyses and network meta-analyses, we found that when injecting basal insulin regimens at bedtime, the optimal choice in order of most to least effective might be glargine U-300 or degludec U-100, glargine U-100 or detemir, followed by neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH). Injecting glargine U-100 in the morning may be more effective (ie, more patients archiving glycated hemoglobin < 7.0%) and lead to fewer hypoglycemic events than injecting it at bedtime. The optimal starting dose for the initiation of any basal insulins can be 0.10–0.20 U/kg/day. There is no eligible evidence to investigate the optimal maintenance dose for basal insulins. Conclusions: The five basal insulins are effective for the target population. Glargine U-300, degludec U-100, glargine U-100, and detemir lead to fewer hypoglycemic events than NPH without compromising glycemic control.

Translated title of the contribution基础胰岛素治疗2型糖尿病的有效性、安全性、初始最佳剂量和最佳维持剂量范围:一项meta分析的系统综述
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-435
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Diabetes
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • basal insulin
  • effectiveness
  • initiation and maintenance dose
  • safety
  • systematic review
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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