Artificial Intelligence-Based Protection for Smart Grids

Mostafa Bakkar, Santiago Bogarra, Felipe Córcoles, Ahmed Aboelhassan, Shuo Wang, Javier Iglesias

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Lately, adequate protection strategies need to be developed when Microgrids (MGs) are connected to smart grids to prevent undesirable tripping. Conventional relay settings need to be adapted to changes in Distributed Generator (DG) penetrations or grid reconfigurations, which is a complicated task that can be solved efficiently using Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based protection. This paper compares and validates the difference between conventional protection (overcurrent and differential) strategies and a new strategy based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which have been shown as adequate protection, especially with reconfigurable smart grids. In addition, the limitations of the conventional protections are discussed. The AI protection is employed through the communication between all Protective Devices (PDs) in the grid, and a backup strategy that employs the communication among the PDs in the same line. This paper goes a step further to validate the protection strategies based on simulations using the MATLAB™ platform and experimental results using a scaled grid. The AI-based protection method gave the best solution as it can be adapted for different grids with high accuracy and faster response than conventional protection, and without the need to change the protection settings. The scaled grid was designed for the smart grid to advocate the behavior of the protection strategies experimentally for both conventional and AI-based protections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4933
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • artificial neural network-based relay
  • distribution system
  • microgrids
  • protection strategies
  • smart grids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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