A set of 99 healthy city indicators for application in urban planning and design

Abbas Ziafati Bafarasat, Ali Cheshmehzangi, Ania Ankowska

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Despite much interest in healthy, sustainable cities, currently they are often on the margins of urban planning and design, not the centre. Part of the reason for this is technical. Many planners are interested in designing healthier cities but wonder how to link their objectives with actions. This study develops 99 indicators for a healthy city. The basis for the development of indicators was the 11 objectives of a healthy city according to the World Health Organisation. Application of these indicators helps push healthy city objectives to the centre of urban planning and design in two ways: (I) the indicators can show gap with each objective; and (II) monitoring the indicators over time can show the performance of solutions for each objective. It is possible to explore synergies and trade-offs between the 11 objectives of healthy cities by examining the relationships between their 99 indicators. Trade-offs between healthy city objectives in some contexts might require local adjustment of these objectives. This, in turn, would require adjustment of their indicators. Thus, the set of 99 indicators can be used as a starting point in an iterative process of adapting healthy city objectives and indicators to local circumstances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1978-1989
Number of pages12
JournalSustainable Development
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • cities
  • healthy city
  • indicators
  • sustainable development
  • urban design
  • urban health
  • urban planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Development


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