A Review of Physical and Digital Mock-Up Applications in Healthcare Building Development

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Mock-up simulation is a design or human factor research method to help designers identify key design issues and factors of a product or environment. This paper discusses physical mock-up (PMU) and digital mock-up (DMU) applications in healthcare building development through a narrative literature review. The following questions are addressed in this paper: what would the purposes of using PMU or DMU simulations be? At which phase of a hospital design would a PMU or DMU simulation be used? What methods can be used to conduct PMU and DMU simulations? The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these two mock-up methods and highlights the importance of clinical staff’s involvement in mock-up simulations. It gives recommendations for the design practitioners or project managers of healthcare building development recommendations to implement these two mock-up methods in healthcare building development projects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number745
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • digital mock-up
  • evidence-based design
  • healthcare building design
  • physical mock-up
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Architecture
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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