Use of basal insulin in the management of adults with type 2 diabetes: An Asia-Pacific evidence-based clinical practice guideline

Linong Ji, Yingying Luo, Yong Mong Bee, Jun Xia, Khue Thy Nguyen, Weigang Zhao, Liming Chen, Siew Pheng Chan, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Soo Lim, Daisuke Yabe, Margaret McGill, Ketut Suastika, Xiaoying Li, Alice Pik Shan Kong, Wei Chen, Zhan Zhao, Chenchen Xu, Marisa Deodat, Xiaomei Yao

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review


The objective of this study was to provide recommendations regarding effectiveness, safety, optimal starting dose, optimal maintenance dose range, and target fasting plasma glucose of five basal insulins (glargine U-300, degludec U-100, glargine U-100, detemir, and insulin protamine Hagedorn) in insulin-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes in the Asia-Pacific region. Based on evidence from a systematic review, we developed an Asia-Pacific clinical practice guideline through comprehensive internal review and external review processes. We set up and used clinical thresholds of trivial, small, moderate, and large effects for different critical and important outcomes in the overall certainty of evidence assessment and balancing the magnitude of intervention effects when making recommendations, following GRADE methods (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). The AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation) and RIGHT (Reporting Items for practice Guidelines in HealThcare) guideline reporting checklists were complied with. After the second-round vote by the working group members, all the recommendations and qualifying statements reached over 75% agreement rates. Among 44 contacted external reviewers, we received 33 clinicians' and one patient's comments. The overall response rate was 77%. To solve the four research questions, we made two strong recommendations, six conditional recommendations, and two qualifying statements. Although the intended users of this guideline focused on clinicians in the Asia-Pacific region, the eligible evidence was based on recent English publications. We believe that the recommendations and the clinical thresholds set up in the guideline can be references for clinicians who take care of patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide.

Translated title of the contribution使用基础胰岛素治疗成人2型糖尿病:亚太地区循证临床实践指南
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-487
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Diabetes
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Asia-Pacific region
  • basal insulin
  • clinical thresholds
  • evidence-based clinical practice guideline
  • systematic review
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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