Wireless technologies for closed-loop retinal prostheses

David C. Ng, Shun Bai, Jiawei Yang, Nhan Tran, Efstratios Skafidas

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we discuss various technologies needed to develop retinal prostheses with wireless power and data telemetry operation. In addition to the need to communicate with the implanted device, supply of power to the retinal prosthesis is especially difficult. This is because, in the implanted state, the device is not fixed in position due to constant motion of the eye. Furthermore, a retinal prosthesis incorporating a high density electrode array of more than 1000 electrodes is expected to consume approximately 45 mW of power and require 300 kbps of image and stimulation data. The front end of the wireless power and data transmission, the antenna, needs to be small compared to the size of the eye. Also, the wireless module is expected to operate in the reactive near-field region due to small separation between the transmit and receive antennas compared to their size and corresponding operating wavelength. An inductive link is studied as a means to transfer power and for data telemetry between the implant and external unit. In this work, the use of integrated circuit and microfabrication technologies for implementing inductive links is discussed. A closed-loop approach is taken to improve performance and reach optimum operation condition. Design and simulation data are presented as the basis for development of viable wireless module prototypes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065004
JournalJournal of Neural Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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