This study investigates the vibration transmission and power dissipation behaviour of a mass-spring-damper system mounted on a conveyor belt. Coulomb friction exists between the mass and the belt moving at a constant velocity and acts as the external force for the mass. The steady-state power flow characteristics are obtained based on numerical integrations. The vibration energy dissipation at the contact interface and by the viscous damper is evaluated and quantified. The vibration transmission is measured by force transmissibility. For the system without the viscous damper, the instantaneous friction power can be positive or negative, depending on the motion characteristics of the mass. For the system with the viscous damper, in the steady-state motion, the vibration energy input caused by the friction can be dissipated by the viscous damper and also by the friction. Furthermore, effects of the magnitude of conveyor belt speed, damping ratio and friction force on the dynamic behaviour of systems are examined, and the power dissipation ratio of the system is analyzed. The results are expected to provide insights into the vibration transmission and suppression design of systems with friction.