Taming Self-Supervised Learning for Presentation Attack Detection: De-Folding and De-Mixing

Zhe Kong, Wentian Zhang, Feng Liu, Wenhan Luo, Haozhe Liu, Linlin Shen, Raghavendra Ramachandra

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


Biometric systems are vulnerable to presentation attacks (PAs) performed using various PA instruments (PAIs). Even though there are numerous PA detection (PAD) techniques based on both deep learning and hand-crafted features, the generalization of PAD for unknown PAI is still a challenging problem. In this work, we empirically prove that the initialization of the PAD model is a crucial factor for generalization, which is rarely discussed in the community. Based on such observation, we proposed a self-supervised learning-based method, denoted as DF-DM. Specifically, DF-DM is based on a global&#x2013;local view coupled with <bold>d</bold>e-<bold>f</bold>olding and <bold>d</bold>e-<bold>m</bold>ixing to derive the task-specific representation for PAD. During de-folding, the proposed technique will learn region-specific features to represent samples in a local pattern by explicitly minimizing the generative loss. While de-mixing drives detectors to obtain the instance-specific features with global information for more comprehensive representation by minimizing the interpolation-based consistency. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve significant improvements in terms of both face and fingerprint PAD in more complicated and hybrid datasets when compared with the state-of-the-art methods. When training in CASIA-FASD and Idiap Replay-Attack, the proposed method can achieve an 18.60% equal error rate (EER) in OULU-NPU and MSU-MFSD, exceeding the baseline performance by 9.54%. The source code of the proposed technique is available at https://github.com/kongzhecn/dfdm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Presentation attack detection (PAD)
  • self-supervised learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Artificial Intelligence


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