Ultrasound (US) demonstrates remarkable potential in synthesising nanomaterials, particularly nanobiomaterials targeted towards biomedical applications. This review briefly introduces existing top-down and bottom-up approaches for nanomaterials synthesis and their corresponding synthesis mechanisms, followed by the expounding of US-driven nanomaterials synthesis. Subsequently, the pros and cons of sono-nanotechnology and its advances in the synthesis of nanobiomaterials are drawn based on recent works. US-synthesised nanobiomaterials have improved properties and performance over conventional synthesis methods and most essentially eliminate the need for harsh and expensive chemicals. The sonoproduction of different classes and types of nanobiomaterials such as metal and superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs), lipid- and carbohydrate-based NPs, protein microspheres, microgels and other nanocomposites are broadly categorised based on the physical and/or chemical effects induced by US. This review ends on a good note and recognises US-driven synthesis as a pragmatic solution to satisfy the growing demand for nanobiomaterials, nonetheless some technical challenges are highlighted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry