Sizing and SOC Management of a Smart-Transformer-Based Energy Storage System

Chandan Kumar, Rongwu Zhu, Giampaolo Buticchi, Marco Liserre

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


A smart transformer (ST), which is a power-electronic-based transformer with control and communication functionalities, can be the optimal solution for integrating a battery energy storage system (BESS) in an electric distribution system. In fact, a comparison of energy efficiency for the conventional BESS and the ST-based BESS is carried out, which demonstrates that the ST-based BESS operation is more efficient during charging and discharging, as compared to the conventional BESS. It has been shown that by sizing the BESS appropriately for the peak load demand, the power rating of ST converters can be reduced. The ST-based BESS provides an enhanced fault ride-through capability, as compared to the conventional BESS. However, the state of charge (SOC) of the BESS shall be correctly managed to support the peak load demand when the ST converter reaches its maximum active power rating. Both simulation and experimental results clearly verify the developed SOC management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6709-6718
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Battery energy storage system (BESS)
  • power converter
  • smart transformer (ST)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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