Sediments deposited by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami along the Malaysia-Thailand Peninsula

Andrea D. Hawkes, Michael Bird, Susan Cowie, Carl Grundy-Warr, Benjamin P. Horton, Aileen Tan Shau Hwai, Lisa Law, Colin Macgregor, Jonathan Nott, Jin Eong Ong, Jonathan Rigg, Ruth Robinson, May Tan-Mullins, Teh Tiong Sa, Zulfigar Yasin, Lee Wan Aik

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

168 Citations (Scopus)


Stratigraphy, grain size distribution and foraminiferal assemblages of pre-tsunami and tsunami sediment from the Indian Ocean Tsunami at five sites along the Malaysia-Thailand Peninsula were analyzed to gain information on tsunami sediment source and deposition style. Between three and five stratigraphic units were identified at each site and contained between one and three fining upward sequences reflecting waning flow or pre-backwash deposition. Coarser sand layers reflecting uprush high-energy flow separated the fining upward sequences, with the exception of one site (Sungai Burong), which contained a coarsening upward sequence. All contacts between the pre-tsunami and tsunami sediment were sharp or erosional. Medium and coarse sand dominated all of the tsunami sediment deposits and often contained shell fragments. Foraminiferal assemblages were able to differentiate pre-tsunami sediment from tsunami sediment where no lithological or grain size distribution change was evident. Between two and four foraminiferal zones were identified at each of the five sites and provided estimates of sediment source and wave characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-190
Number of pages22
JournalMarine Geology
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 6 Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Malaysia
  • Thailand
  • foraminifera
  • grain size
  • tsunami

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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