Reinforcement learning-based joint self-optimisation method for the fuzzy logic handover algorithm in 5G HetNets

Qianyu Liu, Chiew Foong Kwong, Sun Wei, Sijia Zhou, Lincan Li, Pushpendu Kar

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


5G heterogeneous networks (HetNets) can provide higher network coverage and system capacity to the user by deploying massive small base stations (BSs) within the 4G macrosystem. However, the large-scale deployment of small BSs significantly increases the complexity and workload of network maintenance and optimisation. The current handover (HO) triggering mechanism A3 event was designed only for mobility management in the macrosystem. Directly implementing A3 in 5G-HetNets may degrade the user mobility robustness. Motivated by the concept of self-organisation networks (SON), this study developed a self-optimisation triggering mechanism to enable automated network maintenance and enhance user mobility robustness in 5G-HetNets. The proposed method integrates the advantages of subtractive clustering and Q-learning frameworks into the conventional fuzzy logic-based HO algorithm (FLHA). Subtractive clustering is first adopted to generate a membership function (MF) for the FLHA to enable FLHA with the self-configuration feature. Subsequently, Q-learning is utilised to learn the optimal HO policy from the environment as fuzzy rules that empower the FLHA with a self-optimisation function. The FLHA with SON functionality also overcomes the limitations of the conventional FLHA that must rely heavily on professional experience to design. The simulation results show that the proposed self-optimisation FLHA can effectively generate MF and fuzzy rules for the FLHA. The proposed approach can minimise the HO, ping-pong HO, and HO failure ratios while improving network throughput and latency by comparing with conventional triggering mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7297-7313
Number of pages17
JournalNeural Computing and Applications
Issue number10
Early online date15 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished Online - 15 Nov 2021


  • Fuzzy logic
  • Handover
  • Heterogeneous networks
  • Self-optimisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Artificial Intelligence


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