Recent progress on lower-bound shakedown analysis of road pavements

J. Wang, S. Liu, H. S. Yu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingBook Chapterpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Shakedown theory has been recognised as a more rational basis for structural design of flexible road pavements. A lower-bound shakedown approach, which aims to find the maximum design load of a pavement structure, was developed by the University of Nottingham, that forms part of efforts among other researchers' in applying shakedown theory in pavement designs. The lower-bound shakedown solutions were consistent with existing shakedown solutions assuming that the materials are isotropic and homogeneous following an associated plastic flow rule. Recently, this lower-bound approach was further developed to consider more realistic cases. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional shakedown analyses were carried out taking into account cross-anisotropic or heterogeneous materials, the properties of which were programmed into a finite element software ABAQUS. For pavement materials obeying a non-associated flow rule, the corresponding two-dimensional lower-bound shakedown limits were also estimated by extending the lower-bound shakedown approach. A numerical step-by-step approach was also applied to address the non-associated problems and obtained similar results. Through these studies, influences of the original assumptions on the shakedown-based pavement designs can be assessed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Direct Methods for Materials and Structures
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783319598109
ISBN (Print)9783319598086
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (all)


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