Reaching Out to Group Contingencies in the ESL Classroom

Jennifer Grace John, Revathi Gopal, Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singh, Kalai Mathi Yesupatham, Hendri Pratama

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


The most significant task for a teacher is to keep students engaged in the classroom. Teachers can use group contingencies like independent, dependent, and interdependent to assist students in being more involved in classroom tasks. This study identifies the effects of group contingencies in regulating students' engagement in ESL classroom tasks. Samples comprise 27 Form 4 mixed-ability students from a secondary school in Selangor, Malaysia. The research used a mixed-method approach that included both quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings revealed positive motivation, task retention, and teamwork promotion outcomes. Student behaviour was found to have a detrimental impact, particularly among the weaker students, who were boisterous and essentially riders. Interdependent group contingency has been determined to be the most successful method for regulating student engagement in ESL classes. This study suggests that students be divided into interdependent groups to ensure that classroom evaluations be done independently within the allotted time. It also has a good impact on the students' motivation and teamwork.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-124
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Higher Education Theory and Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • academic performances
  • group contingency
  • independent
  • interdependent students’ engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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