Previous researches have indicated the non-coaxiality of sand in unidirectional simple shear tests, in which the direction of the principal axes of stresses does not coincide with the corresponding principal axes of strain rate tensors. Due to the limitation of apparatus that most of testing facilities can only add shear stress in one direction, the influence of stress history on the noncoaxiality of sand is not fully considered in previous tests. In this study, the effect of stress history on the non-coaxiality of sand is systematically studied by using the first commercially available Variable Direction Dynamic Cyclic Simple Shear system (VDDCSS). Samples of Leighton Buzzard sand (Fraction B) are first consolidated under a vertical confining stress and consolidation shear stress, and then sheared by a drained monotonic shear stress. Angle (θ) between the consolidation shear stress and the drained monotonic shear stress is varied from 0° to 180°, with an interval of 30°. The change of principal axes of stresses is predicted by well-established equations, and the principal axe of strain rate is calculated using recorded data. Results show that the level of non-coaxiality is increased by the increasing θ, especially at the initial stage of drained shearing.
- Principal stress rotation
- noncoaxial behavior
- orientation of principal stress
- simple shear
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering