Prediction of dense phase voidage for group C+ fluidized bed reactor

Yandaizi Zhou, Jesse Zhu

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Group C+ fluidized bed reactor exhibited better reactor performance than conventional fluidized bed reactors, due to the larger specific surface area of the catalysts and the more homogeneous fluidization, especially the extraordinary dense phase expansion which contributes to higher gas–solid contact efficiency. As a critical parameter affecting the reactor performance, the dense phase voidage (εd) was thoroughly characterized and general correlations for predicting εd were derived based on both Richardson-Zaki and Kozeny-Carman approaches. In addition, a new method for predicting the minimum fluidization velocity of Group C+ particles with the consideration of the particle cohesion was proposed. The bed voidage at minimum fluidization (εmf) and the maximum dense phase voidage (εd,max) were shown to correlate well with a dimensionless cohesion index (σ*). All these new correlations showed good agreements with the experimental data for various types of Group C+ particles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126217
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Dense phase voidage
  • Group C particles
  • Kozeny-Carman equation
  • Minimum fluidization velocity
  • Nanoparticles
  • Richardson-Zaki equation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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