Particle agglomeration via resonant acoustic mixer for dry powder inhalation

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


The work presented in this paper employed a resonant acoustic mixing (RAM) process to optimize the fine particle agglomeration process for dry powder inhalation to achieve efficient pulmonary delivery of melatonin. The formulation prepared by acoustic mixing with the double layer grids demonstrated superior agglomerate particle size distribution and approximately 90% of the metered dose in the dosing chamber was emitted from Turbuhaler® (90% emitted dose). Acceleration force during acoustic mixing significantly affected the packing fraction of mixtures and mechanical strength of agglomerates resulting in improved fine particle fraction. The particle agglomeration via RAM can improve the efficiency of agglomerate production by utilizing the internal space of the mixer to induce more particle collision. The agglomerates formulation exhibited ideal fine particle fraction of 47.65 ± 1.46% and 56.02 ± 2.55% at flow rates of 30 and 60 L/min, respectively. The fine particle deposition was only slightly affected at the lower air-flow rate, suggesting a reliable inhalation performance in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-262
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Engineering Research and Design
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Inhalation
  • Melatonin
  • Particle agglomeration
  • Resonant acoustic mixing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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