Fast pyrolysis of kraft lignin with partial (air) oxidation was studied in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor at reaction temperatures of 773 and 823K. The bio-oil vapors were fractionated using a series of three condensers maintained at desired temperatures, providing a dry bio-oil with less than 1% water and over 96% of the total bio-oil energy. Oxygen feed was varied to study its effect on yield, composition, and energy recovery in the gas, char and oil products. The addition of oxygen to the pyrolysis process increased the production of gases such as CO and CO2. It also changed the dry bio-oil properties, reducing its heating value, increasing its oxygen content, reducing its average molecular weight and tar concentration, while increasing its phenolics concentration. The lower reaction temperature of 773K was preferred for both dry bio-oil yield and quality. Autothermal operation of the pyrolysis process was achieved with an oxygen feed of 72 or 54g per kg of biomass at the reaction temperatures of 773 and 823K, respectively. Autothermal operation reduced both yield and total energy content of the dry bio-oil, with relative reductions of 24 and 20% for the yield, 28 and 23% for the energy content, at 773 and 823K.
- Fractional condensation
- Kraft lignin
- Oxidative pyrolysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Waste Management and Disposal