Operando study of Fe 3 O 4 anodes by electrochemical atomic force microscopy

Shuwei Wang, Weicong Zhang, Yuanning Chen, Zhengwu Dai, Chongchong Zhao, Deyu Wang, Cai Shen

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Present study provided visual evidence of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation on Fe 3 O 4 anode during charge and discharge using in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy. AFM images show that SEI layer formed on Fe 3 O 4 electrode from fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolyte was more stable and compact than that formed from ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolyte. In addition, presence of surface cracks on the electrodes indicated poor formation of an intact SEI layer. This observation was more apparent in the EC-based electrolyte. Lack of an intact SEI layer resulted in decomposition of electrolytes which were reflected by presence of large air bubbles and dendrites on the electrode during CV. Although FEC-based electrolyte improved the performance of Fe 3 O 4 anodes in lithium ion batteries, its protective effects were far from perfect. To accelerate the application of Fe 3 O 4 or other metal oxide anodes in lithium ion batteries, better electrolytes and sophisticated carbon coating techniques are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-223
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Anode
  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Iron oxide
  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • Solid electrolyte interphase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (all)
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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