This paper presents a novel motor topology, called the End-Winding Flux Machine (EWM), which explores the potential function of end-windings in rotating electric machines. By introducing an axial-radial flux stator into the end-windings, a hybrid flux machine known as the End-Winding Hybrid Flux Machine (EHFM) is created, establishing an additional radial-axial flux circuit alongside the conventional radial-flux machine. The machine characteristics of the EHFM are validated through analytical calculations and transient 3-D finite-element method (FEM). Experimental investigations are conducted on a prototype EHFM, and the tested data is compared with FEM results. The EHFM exhibits enhanced torque performance compared to the benchmark motor, utilizing the same input current and amature winding specifications. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design and its potential for improving end-wingding utilization and torque performance in electric machines.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2023


  • End-winding
  • Axial-radial flux
  • Hybrid flux machine
  • Torque performance


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