Ionospheric scintillation is one of the main error sources of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning. The presence of scintillation may result in cycle slips, measurement errors or even losses of lock on satellites, eventually leading to complete failure of positioning. Typically, scintillation parameters S4 and σϕ are used to characterize amplitude and phase scintillation, respectively. However, the scintillation parameters can only be generated from data with a frequency of at least 1 Hz. Rate of change of total electron content index (ROTI) is often used as a proxy for scintillation parameters, which can be obtained from 1/30 Hz data. However, previous research has shown the inefficiency of ROTI to represent scintillation. Therefore, the multipath parameter (MP) has been proposed as another proxy for scintillation parameters, which can also be obtained from 1/30 Hz data. In this paper, both MP and ROTI (standard parameters) were used to mitigate scintillation effects on precise point positioning (PPP). To evaluate the effectiveness of MP and ROTI in mitigating scintillation effects, S4 and σϕ were also used for comparison and validation. Three strategies are proposed: (1) remove all observations from the satellite that is most affected by scintillation; (2) remove the scintillation-affected observations; (3) weight the measurement noise matrix in the Kalman Filter (KF) process. The results show that the observation removal and weighting strategies are considerably more effective than the satellite removal strategy. The results also show that the improvement of PPP outputs reaches 93.1% and the performance of standard parameters is comparable to that of scintillation parameters in the observation removal and weighting strategies.
- scintillation parameters