L1CAM, CA9, KLK6, HPN, and ALDH1A1 as potential serum markers in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer screening

Francis Yew Fu Tieng, Nadiah Abu, Surani Sukor, Zairul Azwan Mohd Azman, Norshahidah Mahamad Nadzir, Learn Han Lee, Nurul Syakima Ab Mutalib

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening at the earlier stages could effectively decrease CRC-related mortality and incidence; however, accurate screening strategies are still lacking. Considerable interest has been generated in the detection of less invasive tests requiring a small sample volume with the potential to detect several cancer biomarkers simultaneously. Due to this, the ELISA-based method was undertaken in this study. Methods: Concentrations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM), carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), mesothelin (MSLN), midkine (MDK), hepsin (HPN), kallikrein 6 (KLK6), transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 (ALDH1A1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) from blood serum of 36 primary CRC and 24 metastatic CRC (mCRC) were calculated via MAGPIX® System (Luminex Corporation, USA). Results: Significantly increased concentration (p < 0.05) of three serum biomarkers (L1CAM, CA9, and HPN) were shown in mCRC when compared with primary CRC. HPN and KLK6 showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in concentration among different stages of CRC. In contrast, levels of HPN and ALDH1A1 were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in chemotherapy-treated CRC patients as compared with nontreated ones. Conclusion: Serum biomarkers could act as a potential early CRC diagnostics test, but further additional testings are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number444
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemotherapy
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Metastasis
  • Noninvasive
  • Screening
  • Serum biomarkers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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