Ketogenic Diet: A Dietary Intervention via Gut Microbiome Modulation for the Treatment of Neurological and Nutritional Disorders (a Narrative Review)

Jun Ming Lim, Vengadesh Letchumanan, Loh Teng Hern Tan, Kar Wai Hong, Sunny Hei Wong, Nurul Syakima Ab Mutalib, Learn Han Lee, Jodi Woan Fei Law

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ketogenic diet (KD) has been important in treating epilepsy since the 1920s. The benefits of KD further expanded to other neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s diseases, autism spectrum disorder, and nutritional disorder (obesity). Although the therapeutic efficacy of KD has been generally accepted, there is limited knowledge about its underlying mechanism of action, particularly its effect on our gut microbiome. Gut dysbiosis has been proposed to be involved in those diseases, and KD can promote gut microbiota remodeling that may assist in recovery. This review explores the therapeutic applications of KD, the roles of the gut microbiome in neurological diseases and obesity, as well as the effect of KD on the gut microbiome. The present information suggests that KD has significant roles in altering the gut microbiome to improve disease symptoms, mainly by incrementing Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (B/F) ratio and reducing Proteobacteria in certain cases. However, current gaps call for continued research to understand better the gut microbiota profile altered by KD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3566
JournalNutrients
Volume14
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • diet
  • dietary therapies
  • gut microbiota
  • intestinal microbes
  • microbiome
  • nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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