There is a strong desire to replace or complement aqueous and organic electrolytes by ionic liquids (ILs) in electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices to achieve high operating voltages and hence high energy capacity. ILs are regarded as the inherent and competitive electrolytes since they were introduced to the electrochemical research community because they can overcome many disadvantages of the conventional aqueous and organic electrolytes, such as narrow potential windows, volatility, and flammability. This paper reviews critically the recent literatures of IL-based electrolytes used in supercapacitor, supercapattery, and micro-supercapacitor. Supercapattery is a generic term for various hybrid devices combining the merits of rechargeable battery and supercapacitor and often shows capacitive behavior. Fundamentals of supercapattery are briefly explained with typical examples. Micro-supercapacitor falls in the same scope of supercapacitor and supercapattery and shares the same fundamental concerns besides topology or structure. The future of IL-based electrolytes for the capacitive EES devices are also prospected.
- supercapacitor, supercapattery, micro-supercapacitor, ionic liquids, electrolytes, interfaces