Identification of microbes in inoculant for agarwood (Gaharu) formation using molecular biological techniques

Tamrin Nuge, Yumi Zuhanis Has Yun Hashim, Azura Amid, Irwandi Jaswir, Parveen Jamal, Hamzah Mohd Salleh

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


The distinctive fragrance and pleasing odor of the agarwood came from the resinous materials impregnated in the phloem of the tree as a response to infection. Artificial inoculants have been developed by "trial and error" methods to boost the resin formation. These artificial inoculants have been used widely in this region despite no strong scientific data and that they contribute to most of the cost for agarwood resin production. In collaboration with an agarwood industry player, a research work was initiated to isolate and identify the microorganisms present in an inoculant that has been proven effective in boosting the agarwood resin formation. Fifteen clones were constructed by extracting and amplifying the 16S rDNA and ITS sequences from the pure cultures isolated from the inoculant. Three genera of microorganisms (Bacillus, Paenabacillus, Monascus) have been successfully identified. Two bacteria clones were phylogenetically affiliated with Paenibacillus sp. and four clones were associated with Bacillus sp. as well as three fungi clones were associated with Monascus sp. All the identified species are spore-forming microorganisms. The genera of Bacillus and Paenabacillus were able to utilize carbohydrate and protein from the tree as their energy sources. These two genera may be crucial to boost resin formation in agarwood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)769-776
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Issue numberSPEC. ISS. 1
Publication statusPublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • 16S rDNA
  • Agarwood
  • Inoculant
  • ITS
  • Phylogeny

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


Dive into the research topics of 'Identification of microbes in inoculant for agarwood (Gaharu) formation using molecular biological techniques'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this