Group C+ particles: Enhanced flow and fluidization of fine powders with nano-modulation

Yandaizi Zhou, J. Zhu

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


The main challenge in the flow and fluidization of Geldart Group C particles is their cohesive nature due to strong interparticle forces. The “nanoparticle modulation” technique is adopted to reduce the interparticle forces of Group C particles and thus significantly improve their flow and fluidization quality. Group C+ particles, a new type of fine particles with drastically reduced or insignificant interparticle forces, are created using the nano-modulation technique. Fundamental studies provided a comprehensive understanding of the flow and fluidization quality of Group C+ particles. Nano-modulation led to major enhancements to both the static and dynamic flowability of Group C+ particles. Moreover, Group C+ particles exhibited revolutionary advancements in fluidization, which enabled its pseudo-particulate fluidization over a wide range of operating gas velocities, up to 200–300% times that of bed expansion. The high bed expansion allows more gas to be retained in the bed and provides large volumes for gas-solid interfacial contact, thus promoting chemical reactions, especially gas phase catalytic reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)653-662
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Bed expansion
  • Flowability
  • Group C particles
  • Nanoparticle modulation
  • Pseudo-particulate fluidization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (all)
  • Chemical Engineering (all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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