Glycerol-based sustainably sourced resin for volumetric printing

Eduards Krumins, Joachim C. Lentz, Ben Sutcliffe, Ali Sohaib, Philippa L. Jacob, Benedetta Brugnoli, Valentina Cuzzucoli Crucitti, Robert Cavanagh, Robert Owen, Cara Moloney, Laura Ruiz-Cantu, Iolanda Francolini, Steven M. Howdle, Maxim Shusteff, Felicity R.A.J. Rose, Ricky D. Wildman, Yinfeng He, Vincenzo Taresco

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


Volumetric Additive Manufacturing (VAM) represents a revolutionary advancement in the field of Additive Manufacturing, as it allows for the creation of objects in a single, cohesive process, rather than in a layer-by-layer approach. This innovative technique offers unparalleled design freedom and significantly reduces printing times. A current limitation of VAM is the availability of suitable resins with the required photoreactive chemistry and from sustainable sources. To support the application of this technology, we have developed a sustainable resin based on polyglycerol, a bioderived (e.g., vegetable origin), colourless, and easily functionisable oligomer produced from glycerol. To transform polyglycerol-6 into an acrylate photo-printable resin we adopted a simple, one-step, and scalable synthesis route. Polyglycerol-6-acrylate fulfils all the necessary criteria for volumetric printing (transparency, photo-reactivity, viscosity) and was successfully used to print a variety of models with intricate geometries and good resolution. The waste resin was found to be reusable with minimal performance issues, improving resin utilisation and minimising waste material. Furthermore, by incorporating dopants such as poly(glycerol) adipate acrylate (PGA-A) and 10,12-pentacosadyinoic acid (PCDA), we demonstrated the ability to print objects with a diverse range of functionalities, including temperature sensing probes and a polyester excipient, highlighting the potential applications of these new resins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1345-1355
Number of pages11
JournalGreen Chemistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution


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