Gender quota, women in politics, and gender parity in education

Alex O. Acheampong, Eric Evans Osei Opoku, Niharika Rustagi

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


Do women in politics contribute to gender parity in education? This study seeks to provide an empirical answer to this question by examining whether women in politics (women parliamentarians) contribute to closing the gender inequality in education using a global sample of 191 countries from 1990 to 2020. We deployed the two-stage least square (IV-TSLS) technique and gender quota as an instrument to isolate the exogenous effect of women in politics on gender parity in primary, secondary and tertiary education. The findings from the IV-TSLS estimators show that an increase in the number of female parliamentarians is associated with a significant increase in gender parity at all levels of education. These results survived several robustness checks, including using different estimators such as the Lewbel two-stage least squares and the Kinky least-squares estimators. Based on the quota type, we documented that women in politics significantly spur gender parity in education in countries with reserved seat quotas and not in countries with candidate quotas. We also found that the results differ across different geographical regions and income groups. The findings call on policy-makers to address societal, legal and structural barriers limiting women's political participation to achieve gender parity at all levels of education.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEconomics and Politics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • gender parity in education
  • gender quota
  • politics
  • sustainable development
  • women empowerment
  • women parliamentarians

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics


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