Functional electrical stimulation by nanogenerator with 58 v output voltage

Guang Zhu, Aurelia C. Wang, Ying Liu, Yusheng Zhou, Zhong Lin Wang

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

283 Citations (Scopus)


We demonstrate a new type of integrated nanogenerator based on arrays of vertically aligned piezoelectric ZnO nanowires. The peak open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current reach a record high level of 58 V and 134 μA, respectively, with a maximum power density of 0.78 W/cm 3. The electric output was directly applied to a sciatic nerve of a frog, inducing innervation of the nerve. Vibrant contraction of the frog's gastrocnemius muscle is observed as a result of the instantaneous electric input from the nanogenerator.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3086-3090
Number of pages5
JournalNano Letters
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Nanogenerator
  • ZnO
  • energy harvesting
  • functional electrical stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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