First trimester exposure to anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs and the risks of major congenital anomalies: A United Kingdom population-based cohort study

Lu Ban, Joe West, Jack E. Gibson, Linda Fiaschi, Rachel Sokal, Pat Doyle, Richard Hubbard, Liam Smeeth, Laila J. Tata

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Despite their widespread use the effects of taking benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics during pregnancy on the risk of major congenital anomaly (MCA) are uncertain. The objectives were to estimate absolute and relative risks of MCAs in children exposed to specific anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs taken in the first trimester of pregnancy, compared with children of mothers with depression and/or anxiety but not treated with medication and children of mothers without diagnosed mental illness during pregnancy. Methods: We identified singleton children born to women aged 15-45 years between 1990 and 2010 from a large United Kingdom primary care database. We calculated absolute risks of MCAs for children with first trimester exposures of different anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs and used logistic regression with a generalised estimating equation to compare risks adjusted for year of childbirth, maternal age, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Results: Overall MCA prevalence was 2.7% in 1,159 children of mothers prescribed diazepam, 2.9% in 379 children with temazepam, 2.5% in 406 children with zopiclone, and 2.7% in 19,193 children whose mothers had diagnosed depression and/or anxiety but no first trimester drug exposures. When compared with 2.7% in 351,785 children with no diagnosed depression/anxiety nor medication use, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.02 (99% confidence interval 0.63-1.64) for diazepam, 1.07 (0.49-2.37) for temazepam, 0.96 (0.42-2.20) for zopiclone and 1.27 (0.43-3.75) for other anxiolytic/hypnotic drugs and 1.01 (0.90-1.14) for un-medicated depression/anxiety. Risks of system-specific MCAs were generally similar in children exposed and not exposed to such medications. Conclusions: We found no evidence for an increase in MCAs in children exposed to benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in the first trimester of pregnancy. These findings suggest that prescription of these drugs during early pregnancy may be safe in terms of MCA risk, but findings from other studies are required before safety can be confirmed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere100996
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General


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