Factors Influencing Engagement in Hybrid Virtual and Augmented Reality

Yue Li, Eugene Ch'Ng, Sue Cobb

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


Hybridity in immersive technologies has not been studied for factors that are likely to influence engagement. A noticeable factor is the spatial enclosure that defines where users meet. This involves a mutual object of interest, contents that the users may generate around the object, and the proximity between users. This study examines these factors, namely how object interactivity, user-generated contents (UGC) and avatar proximity influence engagement. We designed a Hybrid Virtual and Augmented Reality (HVAR) environment that supports paired users to experience cultural heritage in both Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). A user study was conducted with 60 participants, providing assessments of engagement and presence via questionnaires, together with mobile electroencephalogram (mEEG) and user activity data that measures VR user engagement in real-time. Our findings provide insights into how engagement between users can occur in HVAR environments for the future hybrid reality with multi-device connectivity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number65
JournalACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2023


  • Additional Key Words and PhrasesVirtual reality
  • augmented reality
  • electroencephalogram
  • engagement
  • mEEG
  • mixed reality
  • presence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction


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