Improving the cyclic stability of lithium metal anodes is of particular importance for developing high-energy-density batteries. In this work, a remarkable finding shows that the control of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) concentrations in electrolytes significantly alters the thickness and modulus of the related SEI layers, leading to varied cycling performances of Li metal anodes. In an electrolyte containing 2 M LiFSI, an SEI layer of ∼70 nm that is obviously thicker than those obtained in other concentrations is observed through in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition to the decomposition of FSI- anions that generates rigid lithium fluoride (LiF) as an SEI component, the modulus of this thick SEI layer with a high LiF content could be significantly strengthened to 10.7 GPa. Such a huge variation in SEI modulus, much higher than the threshold value of Li dendrite penetration, provides excellent performances of Li metal anodes with Coulombic efficiency higher than 99%. Our approach demonstrates that the FSI- anions with appropriate concentration can significantly alter the SEI quality, establishing a meaningful guideline for designing electrolyte formulation for stable lithium metal batteries.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Energy (all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films