Eco-friendly synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with tunable size: Dielectric, magnetic, thermal and optical studies

Ali Bahadur, Aamer Saeed, Muhammad Shoaib, Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Imran Bashir, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Nasir Hussain, Nasir Abbas

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a detailed study on dielectric, magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of citric acid modified ultrafine superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (Cit-USPMNs) was conducted. Water dispersible Cit-USPMNs were synthesized by modified co-precipitation technique. Hydrazine (N2H4) and sodium hydroxide were used as precipitating agents. The size of Cit-USPMNs was tuned by changing the volume of added N2H4. Lemon juice; a source of citric acid was used as a stabilizing agent for this ferrofluid. Phase purity was obtained by annealing at 150 and 250 °C for 4 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was used to confirm the formation of pure magnetite nanoparticles (NPs). The size of Cit-USPMNs lies in the range of 11–15 nm, as calculated by Scherrer's formula which was confirmed by TEM images. The prepared Cit-USPMNs were studied for magnetic and dielectric properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and four probe LCR meter respectively. The MH-loop shows that the magnetic NPs are superparamagnetic in nature. The dielectric behavior and tangent losses as a function of required frequency range were also studied. Optical properties were studied with the help of UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Direct and indirect energy band gaps for Cit-USPMNs were calculated from the UV–Vis spectrum. Size, shape, and surface morphology were tested by TEM image. Surface functionality of Cit-USPMNs and formation of the Fe[sbnd]O bond was verified by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-235
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Chemistry and Physics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Co-precipitation
  • Dielectric
  • FeO
  • Magnetic
  • Magnetite
  • Optical
  • Thermal
  • Ultrafine superparamagnetic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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